Horses that present with hematuria or hemaspermia are candidates for urethral endoscopy. Prior to placing the endoscope in the urethra, it is sterilized by soaking it in a cold sterilizing solution. With the horse sedated and placed in stocks, the endoscope is lubricated and gently passed into the urethral orifice.
Other conditions of the urogenital tract that may be diagnosed by urethral endoscopy include bladder stones and neoplasms such as squamous cell carcinoma. In mares, endoscopy of the vagina enables our veterinarians to directly visualize the cervix in order to accurately repair foaling injuries. Endoscopy may also be used to examine the lining of the uterus in order to identify the location of endometrial cysts that can be eliminated by laser ablation in the standing horse. In the image to the right you can see the diode laser fiber tip being placed against the wall of a large endometrial cyst. The laser is being activated to make an incision in the wall of the cyst to drain it. Once the cyst is drained, the laser is used to remove the lining of the empty cavity.