Cytology – Is the microscopic examination of joint and tendon sheath fluid, urine, blood or other body fluids in order to detect infection or other abnormalities. The cells are studied under a microscope and the changes seen are correlated with the clinical findings. When diagnosing infection, for example, cytological evaluation of body fluids is often performed in conjunction with special stains that help to identify bacteria. In the figure below you can see Staphylococcus bacteria that take up the dark purple component of the Gram Stain. This test is performed in-house at the New Jersey Equine Clinic to speed the diagnosis and appropriate treatment of infection.